The laboratories are located in the Medical Sciences Building at the New Jersey Medical School in Newark, NJ. Research is conducted on trace element and mineral nutrition and toxicology and focuses on two themes: 1) interaction of the diet with environmental toxins and 2) the effects of micronutrient nutrition on immune functions in older people and those with HIV infection. Studies in humans and experimental animals are conducted.
It is widely recognized that exposure to environmental toxins can have profound effects on health. A less well appreciated observation is that interactions between dietary components and toxins can substantially influence the toxicity of the latter. For example, dietary composition and energy intake can markedly influence the ability of carcinogens to produce tumors in experimental animals. Lead poisoning continues to be an enormous public health problem, especially for young children, due to the widespread presence of lead in environmental media and consumer products. Lead that is absorbed can be retained in the skeleton for decades. Our recent experimental research demonstrates that:
- younger age during lead exposure causes greater skeletal lead retention despite extensive bone turnover.
- lead exposure during pregnancy contributes to fetal growth retardation and pregnancy-induced hypertension.
- an increase in dietary calcium can ameliorate the adverse effects of lead exposure during pregnancy on fetal growth and maternal blood pressure in the third trimester.
- the vitamin-D dependent calcium binding protein calbindin D28K appears to have a key role in the molecular responses to lead exposure.
- weight loss results in changes in body lead distribution.
- even for lead exposure ending well before pregnancy, an increase in maternal diet calcium can reduce fetal lead accumulation.
- lead exposure contributes to aggressive behavior in an animal model.
- high percentages of children in Newark have low dietary calcium intakes and lead poisoning.
- Serum 25-hydroxy-vitamin D and blood lead concentrations are higher in summer than winter. The seasonal increases are significantly correlated, but vary substantially with age and race (see figure).
There is considerable evidence that the decline in cellular immunity with aging that occurs in a substantial percentage of people contributes to increased morbidity and mortality from infectious diseases and cancer, two major causes of death of older adults. Furthermore, those people who live to age 85 and beyond tend to have well functioning immune systems. These studies are based on the hypothesis that a decline in certain clinically important immune functions with age is not inevitable, but is in part related to dietary micronutrient intake, particularly of micronutrients that are antioxidants. A related hypothesis is that micronutrient nutrition influences the progression of HIV infection.
Major findings to date demonstrate that:
- daily use of common over-the-counter multivitamin/mineral supplements for one year can significantly improve delayed hypersensitivity skin test (DHST) responses in healthy older people.
- the improvement develops slowly (over 6-12 months) but occurs sooner in men than women, and is not due to correction of underlying "deficiencies".
- simultaneous ingestion of even modest doses of zinc supplements can significantly retard the enhancement of DHST responses by a multivitamin/mineral supplement.
- lower soluble IL-2R concentrations in older people are associated with regular exercise and lower serum homocysteine concentrations.
- progression of HIV infection is associated with lower circulating concentrations of reduced glutathione, magnesium, zinc, and choline.
- DC Kossor, S Han, FW Kemp, RW Slauter, D Serota, D Rajaskarian, G Walter, N Milner A Davidovitch, and J.D. Bogden: Administration of an oral antibiotic selectively alters copper nutriture in male rats. J Nutr, 131:3247-3250, 2001.
- FW Kemp, J DeCandia, W Li, K Bruening, H Baker, D Rigassio, A Bendich, and J.D. Bogden: Relationships between immunity and dietary and serum antioxidants, trace metals, B vitamins, and homocysteine in elderly men and women. Nutrition Research, 22:45-53, 2002.
- EG Spokas, MD Crivellone, FW Kemp, J.D. Bogden, and GM Cohen: Characterization of sodium, potassium ATPase activity in gills of Pimephales promelas (fathead minnow): influence of in vitro exposure to lead. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol, 69:384-392, 2002.
- MF Sowers, TO Scholl, G Hall, ML Jannausch, FW Kemp, X Li, and J.D. Bogden: Lead in breast milk and maternal bone turnover. Am J Obstet Gynecol, 187:770-776, 2002.
- MF Sowers, T Scholl, M Jannausch, W Li, FW Kemp, and J.D. Bogden: Blood lead concentrations and pregnancy outcomes. Archives Environ Health, 57:489-495, 2002.
- W Li, S Han, TR Gregg, FW Kemp, DB Louria, A Siegel and J.D. Bogden: Lead exposure potentiates predatory attack behavior in the cat. Environ Research, 92:197-206, 2003.
- J.D. Bogden: Influence of zinc on immunity in the elderly. J Nutr Health Aging, 8: 48-54, 2004.
- J.D. Bogden and DB Louria: Nutrition and immunity in the elderly. In: Dietary Enhancement of Human Immune Functions, D Hughes, A Bendich, and LG Darlington, Editors, Humana Press, Totowa, NJ, 2004, pp. 79- 101.
- M Kimura, X Lu, J Skurnick, G Awad, J.D. Bogden, FW Kemp, and A Aviv: Potassium Chloride supplementation diminishes platelet reactivity in humans. Hypertension, 44: 969-973, 2004.
- A Stagnaro-Green, X Chen, J.D. Bogden, TF Davies, and TO Scholl: The thyroid and pregnancy: a novel risk factor for very preterm delivery. Thyroid, 15: 351-357, 2005.
- ZP Vassilev, SM Marcus, K Ayyanathan, V Ciuffo, J.D. Bogden, FW Kemp, B Ruck, T Jennis, N Jani, and W Halperin: Case of elevated blood lead in a South Asian family that has used sindoor for food coloring. Clinical Toxicology, 43: 301-303, 2005.
- J.D. Bogden and DB Louria: Micronutrients and immunity in older people. In: Preventive Nutrition, 3rd edition. A Bendich and R Deckelbaum, Editors, Humana Press, Totowa, NJ, 2005, pp 551-572.
- ME Weinstein, JM Oleske, and JD Bogden: A selected review of breast-feeding recommendations. Nutrition Research, 26: 379-384, 2006.
- EG Spokas, BW Spur, H Smith, FW Kemp, and JD Bogden: Tissue lead concentration during chronic exposure of Pimephales promelas (fathead minnow) to lead nitrate in aquarium water. Environ Sci Technol, 40: 6852-6858, 2006.
- JD Bogden, FW Kemp, X Chen, A Stagnaro-Green, TP Stein, and TO Scholl: Low-normal serum selenium early in human pregnancy predicts lower birth weight. Nutrition Research, 26: 497-502, 2006.
- FW Kemp, PVSV Neti, RW Howell, P Wenger, DB Louria, and JD Bogden: Elevated blood lead concentrations and vitamin D deficiency in young, urban children. Environ Health Perspect, 115: 630-635, 2007.
- LM Klevay, JD Bogden, M Aladjem, HH Sandstead, FW Kemp, W Li, J Skurnick, and A Aviv: Renal and gastrointestinal potassium excretion in humans: new insight based on new data and review and analysis of published studies. J Amer College Nutrition 26: 103-110, 2007.
- JD Bogden and JM Oleske: The essential trace minerals, immunity, and progression of HIV-1 infection. Nutrition Research, 27: 69-77, 2007.